Posts Tagged ‘learn english online’

Making use of free Aviation English Resources

Advice for learning English from Aviation English Asia.

Article written by Michael Egerton

We’ve had a lot of interest from readers looking for free online courses for improving their Aviation English.  In this article I’m going to share with you my recommendations for free Aviation English resources.  Of course, this blog will continue to give you some free Aviation English lessons, but the best possible resource is our mailing list.

The best way to get free ICAO Aviation English exercises

Visit our website http://aviationenglish.com and subscribe to get:

  • FREE instant access to 4 demo units of ICAO Aviation English Online
  • FREE advice about learning English
  • FREE downloads and study guides
  • News about courses in your country
  • Special offers and promotions

The first of these is very special – the ICAO Aviation English Online course has 4 levels, each of 12 units.  Each unit is about 8-12 hours of English practice.  Subscribers can try 4 of these demo units from each of the four levels before you buy the course.

The content of the course is also very interesting for pilots and controllers because it covers important information that you will need in your career, not just for the ICAO test.  It’s also the only conplete Aviation English course, offering courses from ICAO levels 2-4.  If you are preparing for an ICAO English test I strongly recommend that you join our mailing list and try out these free Aviation English lessons.

What do you get in the free demos?

Over 30 hours of Aviation English exercises including.. listening and reading comprehension, true or false questions, gap fill exercises, multiple choice, vocabulary practice and the opportunity to practice radiotelephony.  If your grammar and listening skills are weak I recommend that you try the lower level courses which give you more grammar and listening practice.  The ICAO Level 3 Upper level course is more focused on technical vocabulary, so don’t worry about trying out the low level units.  There is plenty of good practice material there for you.  After trying the demo units, I’m sure that you will want to buy the complete course.

Looking for more free ICAO English exercises?

One of the most important skills that you can develop easily is reading.  There are thousands of aviation articles on the internet but only a handful are suitable as learning material.  Such is the skill of an aviation English teacher who can carefully select suitable articles for use in the classroom.  Keep an eye on our blog and Facebook Page for these articles.

You can also read technical websites like http://www.skybrary.aero which is a wiki created by a number of flight safety and training organisations.  It makes fascinating reading and you can learn something new each time you visit.

For listening practice try listening to a favourite airport on http://liveatc.net.  Always listen for the key information in each transmission and you will soon become familiar with different accents.  Be careful though, listening to air traffic control can become addictive.  There is now an iphone application available which makes listening in, even more convenient.

Our YouTube channel features a selection of videos, some even with ATC transcripts.  If you have any interesting videos to share, please let us know.

Interact with Aviation English Asia

If you want to improve your English, talk to us!  We have a wide range of methods that you can use to engage in a conversation.  If you have a question, ask it on our Facebook Discussion forum, you can also make contact with other Aviation English learners having similar experiences.

Our team of pilots, Subject Matter Experts and Aviation English teachers will be happy to talk with you.  We will post a discussion question each week.  If you have friends and colleagues, suggest that they “like” our page too.

You can find us here:

Please suggest to your friends

Disadvantages of free Aviation English resources

It is always good to practice English at every opportunity, and make good use of free resources on the internet.  But if there is so much free material out there, then why pay for a course?  As aviation English teachers we want you to be independent learners so doing as much self-study as you can is a good thing.  The difficulty is when you get information overload and don’t know where to direct your attention.  With self-study you also lack the feedback and guidance of a teacher, who could perhaps show you your errors or teach you an easier way of practising a skill.

Another difficulty on the internet is that it is easy to become distracted by advertisements and other things like msn messenger.  It can be very easy to lose track of time and study is not always productive.   ICAO Aviation English Online is more effective as it has a Learning Management System that tracks your progress and time spent on the course.  As well as showing you your mistakes, if you miss too many study sessions, or fall behind in your study we can give you a reminder.  When you have a consistent study rhythm it’s relatively easy to achieve a half-ICAO level within 12 weeks.

It’s also easy to take the things that you learn online into the real world as it’s also designed for blended learning in a classroom.  So you can practice and expand everything that you learn online with a teacher and other learners in a classroom.  At the end of the day it’s all about being able to communicate effectively with real people.

What to do next

For feedback and more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com.  We can help you improve your English whether you are an experienced pilot, a cadet entry pilot, a controller, aerospace engineer or flight attendant, with custom courses designed specifically for your needs.  If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for instant access to free demonstration units of the ICAO Aviation English Online course, special offers and details of courses in your area.

Of course, feel free to leave a comment or even a suggestion for a future article.  We value all of your feedback.

English learning advice from Aviation English Asia.

A look at different passenger profiles and language functions to resolve problems on-board.

Written by Michael McBride

In this article,  we will focus on problematic situations that can occur during flight.  This could involve dealing with intoxicated passengers or uncooperative people in the air.  We will look at different questions to consider when faced with a difficult situation, suitable grammar forms and you will also have the chance to practise using visual examples.

Passengers – a diverse mixture

As a member of cabin crew on a commercial airline you will come across a large mix of people from all backgrounds and cultures.  Although there are many stereotypes in society, it may be useful to be aware of them for quick and efficient handling of passengers.

  • A stereotype is a cultural and social expectation that may not be wholly true and accurate but exists in society and we cannot avoid them.

Would you provide the same service to an elderly man the same way you would treat a 20 year old man heading on holiday?  What language and service would you provide someone with full religious garb, or a pregnant woman finding it difficult to enjoy the flight?  Or simply, how would you treat an angry passenger compared to a co-operative and peaceful passenger?

Of course your airline will tell you to treat everyone with the same high-class service, but you must have some awareness of different people so the language you use can be adapted for each situation.  The wrong form of service language could make a situation worse.  Let’s now consider this with grammar and context.

Passengers - a diverse mixture

Credit: http://www.telegraph.co.uk

Describing appearance and emotions – grammar and context

It is useful to ask yourself questions when you have to deal with a problem passenger and keep in mind these questions need to be answered within a few seconds: –

  • Who are they?
  • Why do you think they are complaining or not co-operating?
  • How will you resolve the situation?
  • What language will you use?

With your trainer at Aviation English Asia you will work on adapting language to specific contexts and types of passenger, but now let’s focus on grammar and vocabulary in a more general approach for difficult passengers.

After considering the problem at hand e.g. a passenger is complaining about their meal, and evaluating the situation consider your language.  It is advisable to not use overly direct and plain language.  Using formal verbs like “reject” and “decline” could create more tension and escalate the problem.   Use of apologetic language may soften the situation, look at the following and consider which is more effective?

  • “I’m sorry, sir, but your card hasn’t been accepted.”
  • “Sir, your card has been declined.”

The first example may use more words but projects politeness and calm.  Notice also the use of contractions is vital, for instance, “hasn’t” as opposed to “has not.”  Contractions are made for spoken English but long forms are also used, but they show more emphasis and authority, which is not effective when trying to calm down a passenger.

Politeness and consideration should always be used.  This can also be reinforced by modal verbs that are not strong but still project advice, suggestion and recommendation.  For example: –

  • Sir, you may like to try this meal instead.
  • Madam, would you like to try this option?
  • You could try this meal instead, sir.

Escalated problems, in other words situations you probably cannot handle on your own need to be directed to your senior colleague.  With this it will also bring a new set of language tools if your senior only speaks in English.

Basic description language includes: –

  • Use of adjectives and nouns e.g. angry passenger
  • Keep it simple and use the present simple or progressive tenses e.g. he is not moving from his seat.
  • Using stronger tone and stress will show your English speaking supervisor the situation is more important compared to if you use a lighter tone.  Think of the importance of the problem.

Practice – context and language.

Situation 1

In-flight English for cabin crew

Credit: http://www.sfballetblog.org

  1. Context.  What type of passengers?
  2. Predict.  What could be potential problems?
  3. Communicate.  What language will you use?

This picture shows a group of young travellers, maybe college students heading for Spring Break.  There is a possibility they may be noisy and even over-bearing towards other passengers.

Situation 2

Credit: Sky News

  1. Context.  What type of passengers?
  2. Predict.  What could be potential problems?
  3. Communicate.  What language will you use?

Looking at the body language and gesturing of the male passenger there could be a problem with his meal.  Did he order it?  Is there a problem with what is on the plate?  Also consider his age and background.

Situation 3

Credit: unknown

1      Context.  What type of passengers?

2      Predict.  What could be potential problems?

3      Communicate.  What language will you use?

A number of situations could be predicated here, from complaining to even an argument between passengers.  How would you handle the situation, would you need more help from a supervisor?

Exercise:

Think of some more situations and consider what you would say.

Checklist

  • Be aware of your passengers and who they are
  • Ask yourself a series of questions to evaluate the situation
  • What could happen next, will you need a supervisor?  How would you speak to the supervisor, how would you describe the passenger?

What to do next

For feedback and more information about Aviation English Asia’s cabin crew courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com

English learning advice from Aviation English Asia.

Article written by Michael McBride

In this article I am going to focus on accuracy and making errors in Aviation English communication.  As ICAO state, “errors may occur” at ICAO Level 4.  This article will examine what kind of errors you can reasonably make and what you need to do to be as accurate as possible.   To be accurate is also to be realistic, you cannot expect to be correct in what you say all of the time, so what ‘errors’ are important and what aren’t to be ICAO operational?

What is an error and what is a mistake?

The basic difference is that an “error” is something you do not know the answer to, maybe through a lack of knowledge or skills.  A “mistake” is when you forget the answer to something you previously knew.

So we must look further into the first term – error.  This is where problems can arise and what you need to target in getting your message across even without being 100% accurate and using other words and communication strategies.  Let’s look at the term in more detail by separating it into the following: –

  • Global error – something is said incorrectly and it affects the meaning entirely
  • Local error – some parts of what is said is wrong but overall it doesn’t change the meaning, it is understood to a good extent.

As you probably would guess ICAO will tolerate local errors more, as they state the candidate “rarely makes global errors…and some local errors.”  In other words you must avoid making global errors as much as possible and understand that local errors could still guarantee ICAO level 4 as long as it is not frequent.  Which do you think is local and global from the following: –

#1 “My job is check first the aircraft status.”

#2 “My jos is first the aircraft status.”

#1 is not grammatically correct, but the meaning is clear = local

#2 could be interpreted correctly but it is unclear and when in a pilot-controller situation (as one example) is there enough time to try to understand what is spoken? It totally interferes with the interaction = global

Advice and information on how to reduce errors

Do you think mis-communicating “he speak” rather than “he speaks” on the radio will be seen as a major problem in the eyes of ICAO requirements?  Is it really crucial to meaning?  Well, the simple answer is that it is a local error and if all you need is Level 4 it is not a serious issue, it depends how far you want to go, ICAO level wise.

I must stress that ICAO is more interested in appropriacy and intelligibility than correctness all the time, which means not everything has to be correct but it must be understood overall.

As I have mentioned in previous articles, you need to practice communication strategies to reduce errors and increase accuracy which can be helped by practising the following: –

  • Synonyms – use words of similar/same meaning if you forget your first thought
  • Word families – practice the different forms of words eg. extend, extension, extended, which one is used when?
  • ‘Invent’ new words rather than struggling to remember the correct word for something e.g. “animal container” instead of “cage”

Furthermore you must always be able to check and clarify certain uncertain interactions, which ICAO state as “using clarification strategies” when communication problems arise.  Do not give up, you might not be accurate with a message first time around, so adopt the 3 Cs rule.  Clarify, Check and Confirm.  Which “C” do you think applies to the following: –

  • “Is the altimeter 1014”?
  • “Affirm”
  • “What is the altimeter setting?”

The 3Cs provide a way to make less mistakes in interactions and carrying out a full procedure in the air or on the ground.

Answers – Check, confirm, clarify

An error is only an error if it is not understandable to the vast majority of speakers/listeners.  You must focus on working on the core sounds of words to become more accurate in terms of pronunciation (previous article) and the above strategies in terms of vocabulary and understanding.

In conclusion, remember that your training time might be limited with  due to your schedule, so do not worry too much about local errors like missing out the/a/an and “s” in 3rd person verbs, your instructor will probably not focus too much on correcting this.  Of course this depends on what level you need and your current English ability.

Next steps

Practice and interact in English with colleagues, Aviation personnel and friends using Aviation related topics, such as discussions and even arguments.  Your Aviation English course will be communicative, which means that you must talk, make mistakes and not give up to gain fully from the course.  After all, the ICAO recommended testing system is communicative, which I will focus on in the coming weeks.

Test

Re-write the following sentences, which ones do you think would be acceptable for ICAO Level 4?

  • Avion Air 734, has things in the air flying around, need you
  • Something in the cabin, possibly fighting
  • It seem to coming out of cargo hold
  • He have problem with baby out now

Checklist

  • Some local errors are acceptable, meaning and intelligibility is more important than full and complete accuracy.
  • Communication and clarification strategies should be practiced
  • It is good to make mistakes in your training, keep at it, and don’t give up.  Continually focus on communication of Aviation related topics in and out of the classroom.  Errors and mistakes should reduce the more you practice and communicate (speaking and listening).

What to do next

For more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com. If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for instant access to free demonstration units of the ICAO Aviation English Online course, special offers and details of courses in your area.

Aviation English Asia has a strong record in helping students succeed in aviation careers.  In this article we will explain the level of English proficiency needed to pass the ICAO English test.

So, when it comes to Aviation English most people will tell you ICAO Level 4, but what does that really mean?

In layman’s terms, at ICAO Level 4 you should be able to listen to, read and discuss the main ideas, technical vocabulary and details in most professional material. At this level, you are able to participate in a more sophisticated or professional conversation regarding your specialized area of expertise. You can generally handle predictable and unexpected topics of communication.

You need to show competence in 6 skills of the ICAO Language Proficiency Rating scale.

  • Pronunciation
  • Structure
  • Comprehension
  • Vocabulary
  • Fluency
  • Interaction

Let’s examine what is required for each of those skills at ICAO Level 4:

Pronunciation

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation but only sometimes interfere with ease of understanding.

This means that you have to speak in a way which is intelligible to the aeronautical community –  International English rather than British or American English.  It is acceptable that your pronunciation and accent are affected by your first language, eg Chinese and you are not expected to be a perfect speaker of English.  It is still expected that you will make some pronunciation errors, eg stressing the wrong part of the word or speaking in a broken rhythm but it’s acceptable as long as it only sometimes interferes with understanding.

Structure

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are used creatively and are usually well controlled. Errors may occur, particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances, but rarely interfere with meaning.

Relevant grammatical structures are determined by language functions appropriate to the task.  This means that you need to be proficient in grammatical structures that are used in flight operations.  You should be able to express yourself with a variety of alternative structures and again, it is expected that you will make some grammatical errors.  This descriptor highlights that such errors could occur in non-routine situations, but the meaning is generally understood.

Vocabulary

Vocabulary range and accuracy are usually sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work- related topics. Can often paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary in unusual or unexpected circumstances.

The key words here are common, concrete and work related topics.  You will need to know both general and aviation related vocabulary which could include everything from basic things like parts of an aircraft and weather conditions to health and physiology.  You should also have sufficient ability to paraphrase (eg explain using different words) in non-routine situations.

Fluency

Produces stretches of language at an appropriate tempo. There may be occasional loss of fluency on transition from rehearsed or formulaic speech to spontaneous interaction, but this does not prevent effective communication. Can make limited use of discourse markers or connectors. Fillers are not distracting.

Fluency is your ability to express yourself clearly without pausing too much.  You should also be able to use appropriate conjunctions.  It is acceptable to pause when changing from routine speech eg phraseology to spontaneous (instinctive) speech in interactions.  You shouldn’t “um” and “ah” too much when thinking about what to say.

Comprehension

Comprehension is mostly accurate on common, concrete, and work- related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. When the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events, comprehension may be slower or require clarification strategies.

Comprehension of different accents or variety of speech is a very important skill and needs to be “mostly accurate” on common, concrete and work-related topics.  It is expected that your understanding will be slower in non-routine situations. Comprehension refers to listening comprehension rather than reading.

Interactions

Responses are usually immediate, appropriate, and informative. Initiates and maintains exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected turn of events. Deals adequately with apparent misunderstandings by checking, confirming, or clarifying.

Another valuable skill is the ability to be able to ask questions to check that information is correct.  The responses should be appropriate and give the relevant information.  The speed of response should usually be immediate, even in non-routine situations.

How does an ICAO level relate to other tests like IELTS, TOEFL or TOEIC?

Good question.  If you you have an A grade in an English exam you’d probably be surprised if you failed an ICAO English test.  But that’s exactly what happens to many applicants, who have all the skills ‘on paper’ but have great difficulty in communicating effectively in English – particularly in speaking and listening.

Many school systems puts too much emphasis on performance in exams, and not enough on actual functional ability – so most English courses and language centres will not give you sufficient preparation for the ICAO English test. We’ve seen people with IELTS band 8 scores get ICAO level 3 scores in an ICAO assessment.  It’s very difficult to compare other tests to ICAO.  Unlike other tests, ICAO scores are based on the lowest level that you achieve.  You could get a score of 5 for Pronunciation, Structure, Vocabulary, Comprehension and Interactions but if you only score 3 for Fluency then ICAO Level 3 is your final grade.

The best way to pass an ICAO English test

The ICAO Aviation English Online course is different because it focuses exactly on the skills that you need to perform well in the ICAO test.  But you won’t just train to pass the test, you’ll be able to function in an aviation environment with greater safety and knowledge.  As you improve your English, you can also learn about aviation and improve your technical knowledge.

Each level contains 12 units of between 8 and 12 hours each that will give you intensive practice of the skills you need to pass the ICAO test.  ICAO Aviation English Online is industry grade courseware that has been used by major airlines.  We recommend this course to anyone who is a non-native English speaker starting a course of aviation training.

What should I do now?

Just visit ICAO Aviation English Online and make payment for the Aviation English Placement Test. You will receive an accurate level assessment and a recommendation for the best course to begin studying.

Aviation English Asia Ltd

http://www.aviationenglish.com