Posts Tagged ‘CX CPP’

Advice about improving your English and passing an ICAO English test from Aviation English Asia.

Article written/adapted by Michael Egerton

As a pilot or controller, you are no doubt expecting a number of routine exchanges as part of your ICAO English test, but have you considered how you would respond if an unusual situation occurs?  They don’t get more unusual than this incident which occurred in August 2010.  Read the article and then answer the questions.

Crocodile causes panic among passengers and crew

It has been reported that a small airplane crashed in the Democratic Republic of Congo on 24th August 2010, killing all but one of the passengers.  The cause of the accident was an escaped crocodile which created panic among the passengers and crew.

The propeller driven plane was approaching its destination when a crocodile hidden in the smuggler’s hand luggage escaped and caused distress. Passengers stampeded to one side of the tiny plane, causing it to be thrown off-balance.

The original cause of the crash was originally thought to be a lack of fuel but the anonymous sole survivor has revealed their story to the magazine Jeune Afrique.  The crocodile also survived the crash, but was later killed with a machete by authorities.

The reptile was being smuggled by a passenger who had plans to sell it illegally. The sole survivor told authorities that the crocodile escaped as the plane was on its final approach. “The terrified flight attendant hurried towards the cockpit, followed by the passengers.”

The pilots, 62-year-old Belgian Danny Philemotte, who was also owner of the tiny airline, Filair. Philemotte and his first officer, 39-year-old Briton Chris Wilson, were unable to maintain control of the Czech-made L-410 Turbolet once it became unbalanced.  The twin-engine plane crashed into a house just short of the regional airport at Bandundu killing the pilots and 18 passengers on board. The flight had originated in the capital city of Kinshasa.

Experts say that such a crash would be rare. “It’s possible. It’s remote,” John Cox, a former airline captain and now airplane safety consultant, said to ABC News. “You could run the centre of gravity forward where it wouldn’t be controllable. Twenty people at 200 pounds each, it’s possible.”

Comprehension questions

  • When did the incident occur?
  • Where did the incident happen?
  • During which stage of flight did the crocodile escape?
  • How did passengers and crew react?
  • Do you believe that passengers running from one side of the aircraft to another could cause the plane to crash?

Although this kind of incident appears far-fetched- incidents with animals frequently create difficulties for pilots.  To perform well in an ICAO English test (and for aviation safety) you are going to need to be able to describe this kind of situation clearly in plain English.  With professional training from Aviation English Asia you will be able to understand a wide range of unexpected situations that can occur in flight, organise your thoughts and report them clearly and without hesitation. You will also be able to report the routine stuff AND reinforce your aviation knowledge.

Vocabulary

Find synonyms (words that mean the same) for the following words in the article above.

  • member of cabin-crew
  • cleaver
  • fuel-depletion
  • nameless
  • loose
  • began
  • carry-on bags

What to do next

For feedback and more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com. We can help you improve your English whether you are an experienced pilot, a cadet entry pilot, a controller, aerospace engineer or flight attendant, with custom courses designed specifically for your needs. If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for instant access to free demonstration units of the ICAO Aviation English Online course, special offers and details of courses in your area.

Of course, feel free to leave a comment or even a suggestion for a future article. We value all of your feedback.

A focus on unusual and strange occurrences during flight operations

English learning advice from Aviation English Asia.

Article written by Michael McBride.

How would you communicate the following situation to the controller?

In this article I’m going to explain the different components of Aviation English, and explain why English is important and essential for communication in unexpected situations.

Summary of Aviation English language

Aviation English (AE) is split into three key areas;

  • Phraseology,
  • Plain English and
  • General English.

All three areas work side by side to create language ‘moments’ in the sky and on the ground.  Phraseology is the scripted communication that every pilot and controller has been trained to use.  Plain English is a way to communicate simply without use of over-complex language. It may help to aid understanding and deliver the meaning of something and indeed save lives in certain situations.  General English is not a specific part of many Aviation English courses but it is integrated and assumed.  You need General English as the foundation before you add the building blocks to create your dream home.

The main rule is that you cannot have one linguistic area without the other.  It is a fair assumption that some people discredit or rather devalue the use of ‘plain’ and General English in Aviation English, but the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) completely disagree.  ICAO state that pilots/controllers at level 4 standard can “handle successfully with relative ease the linguistic challenges presented by a complication or unexpected turn of events.”  After all, unforeseen events in the sky may not be as predictable as a holding pattern around London Heathrow.

Phraseology will not get you out of every situation

The official phraseology used by aviation personnel is highly specific and fine-tuned, it will form the basis of all flights, and is indeed a ‘special’ feature of Aviation English.  Phraseology is the result of decades of expert knowledge due to accidents, incidents and logic.  The framework needed to get from A to B safely.  However, it is not enough and you need Plain and General English to get you out of strange and unpredictable problems.  English is one of the most important aspects of ICAO level 4 and above language testing.  For example, what if there are animals loose in the aircraft?  What if there is a piece of luggage blocking the taxiway?  How would you explain this to a controller in English?

Professional Aviation English training with Aviation English Asia will help you integrate all 3 aspects of Aviation English language.  This is done by training you to use a wide range of language skills to get you out of those ‘sticky situations’ when you need to explain an unusual situation.  The  ICAO level 4 requirements state, “(this person) can often paraphrase successfully when lacking in vocabulary for unexpected circumstances.”  This requirement means that you do not need to know every word in aviation or general English, but you do need to know how to get around not knowing certain vocabulary.

Advice on how to communicate in unusual situations

It is essential for any uncertain communication that you maintain a connection with the pilot or controller, “checking and maintaining exchanges in unexpected turn of events” (ICAO).  Aviation English training can help you to build solid communication strategies to solve these communication difficulties and ‘fly out of danger.’   In the classroom or online course you will get plenty of practice on using these language skills.  Relevant grammatical structures include include stock phrases such as:

  • [subject] is similar to…
  • [subject] is like…
  • [subject] looks like…
  • [subject] appears to be…
  • [subject] seems to be…

and stock phrases/expressions to help you describe unusual situations.  You will also be trained to create and change words to combine both simplicity and clarity in your exchange over the radio.  You cannot use a dictionary in your ICAO test and you cannot search for one in your cockpit!  A wide vocabulary is very important in aviation as you might be communicating with another non-native speaker that doesn’t recognise the words that you used.  You will need to learn how to paraphrase so you can use alternative words.

You will learn aviation-related words as part of your pilot/controller training and also in Aviation English training.  It is advisable to learn words in groups, such as technology, mechanical parts, weather related etc.  It is much easier for you to learn when you can see a pattern.  It is also good for your wider English knowledge to study word families – receive, reception, receiving…etc.  And it is a good additional communication strategy to find words with the same meaning, these are called ‘synonyms’, eg, fire, blaze, explosion etc.  Maybe you will remember one word more than others.

For more practical study, try creating situations and imagine how you would communicate it.  For example, animals escaping into the terminal, damage to aircraft by animals.  Then think of the connected vocabulary – containers, cages, hinges…  What information is key when listening?  And if the person you are speaking to doesn’t know what a “cage” is, how could you communicate this?

How would you communicate these problems?

  1. A lot of cargo + gate
  2. Animal + in terminal
  3. Rain + window

For feedback on your answers please email exercise@aviationenglish.asia

Checklist

  • Phraseology is vital but is also not enough
  • Communication strategies
  • Structured learning of words, phrases etc

What to do next

For more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit aviationenglish.com

Aviation English Asia has a strong record in helping students succeed in aviation careers.  In this article we will explain the level of English proficiency needed to pass the ICAO English test.

So, when it comes to Aviation English most people will tell you ICAO Level 4, but what does that really mean?

In layman’s terms, at ICAO Level 4 you should be able to listen to, read and discuss the main ideas, technical vocabulary and details in most professional material. At this level, you are able to participate in a more sophisticated or professional conversation regarding your specialized area of expertise. You can generally handle predictable and unexpected topics of communication.

You need to show competence in 6 skills of the ICAO Language Proficiency Rating scale.

  • Pronunciation
  • Structure
  • Comprehension
  • Vocabulary
  • Fluency
  • Interaction

Let’s examine what is required for each of those skills at ICAO Level 4:

Pronunciation

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation but only sometimes interfere with ease of understanding.

This means that you have to speak in a way which is intelligible to the aeronautical community –  International English rather than British or American English.  It is acceptable that your pronunciation and accent are affected by your first language, eg Chinese and you are not expected to be a perfect speaker of English.  It is still expected that you will make some pronunciation errors, eg stressing the wrong part of the word or speaking in a broken rhythm but it’s acceptable as long as it only sometimes interferes with understanding.

Structure

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are used creatively and are usually well controlled. Errors may occur, particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances, but rarely interfere with meaning.

Relevant grammatical structures are determined by language functions appropriate to the task.  This means that you need to be proficient in grammatical structures that are used in flight operations.  You should be able to express yourself with a variety of alternative structures and again, it is expected that you will make some grammatical errors.  This descriptor highlights that such errors could occur in non-routine situations, but the meaning is generally understood.

Vocabulary

Vocabulary range and accuracy are usually sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work- related topics. Can often paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary in unusual or unexpected circumstances.

The key words here are common, concrete and work related topics.  You will need to know both general and aviation related vocabulary which could include everything from basic things like parts of an aircraft and weather conditions to health and physiology.  You should also have sufficient ability to paraphrase (eg explain using different words) in non-routine situations.

Fluency

Produces stretches of language at an appropriate tempo. There may be occasional loss of fluency on transition from rehearsed or formulaic speech to spontaneous interaction, but this does not prevent effective communication. Can make limited use of discourse markers or connectors. Fillers are not distracting.

Fluency is your ability to express yourself clearly without pausing too much.  You should also be able to use appropriate conjunctions.  It is acceptable to pause when changing from routine speech eg phraseology to spontaneous (instinctive) speech in interactions.  You shouldn’t “um” and “ah” too much when thinking about what to say.

Comprehension

Comprehension is mostly accurate on common, concrete, and work- related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. When the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events, comprehension may be slower or require clarification strategies.

Comprehension of different accents or variety of speech is a very important skill and needs to be “mostly accurate” on common, concrete and work-related topics.  It is expected that your understanding will be slower in non-routine situations. Comprehension refers to listening comprehension rather than reading.

Interactions

Responses are usually immediate, appropriate, and informative. Initiates and maintains exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected turn of events. Deals adequately with apparent misunderstandings by checking, confirming, or clarifying.

Another valuable skill is the ability to be able to ask questions to check that information is correct.  The responses should be appropriate and give the relevant information.  The speed of response should usually be immediate, even in non-routine situations.

How does an ICAO level relate to other tests like IELTS, TOEFL or TOEIC?

Good question.  If you you have an A grade in an English exam you’d probably be surprised if you failed an ICAO English test.  But that’s exactly what happens to many applicants, who have all the skills ‘on paper’ but have great difficulty in communicating effectively in English – particularly in speaking and listening.

Many school systems puts too much emphasis on performance in exams, and not enough on actual functional ability – so most English courses and language centres will not give you sufficient preparation for the ICAO English test. We’ve seen people with IELTS band 8 scores get ICAO level 3 scores in an ICAO assessment.  It’s very difficult to compare other tests to ICAO.  Unlike other tests, ICAO scores are based on the lowest level that you achieve.  You could get a score of 5 for Pronunciation, Structure, Vocabulary, Comprehension and Interactions but if you only score 3 for Fluency then ICAO Level 3 is your final grade.

The best way to pass an ICAO English test

The ICAO Aviation English Online course is different because it focuses exactly on the skills that you need to perform well in the ICAO test.  But you won’t just train to pass the test, you’ll be able to function in an aviation environment with greater safety and knowledge.  As you improve your English, you can also learn about aviation and improve your technical knowledge.

Each level contains 12 units of between 8 and 12 hours each that will give you intensive practice of the skills you need to pass the ICAO test.  ICAO Aviation English Online is industry grade courseware that has been used by major airlines.  We recommend this course to anyone who is a non-native English speaker starting a course of aviation training.

What should I do now?

Just visit ICAO Aviation English Online and make payment for the Aviation English Placement Test. You will receive an accurate level assessment and a recommendation for the best course to begin studying.

Aviation English Asia Ltd

http://www.aviationenglish.com

English learning tips from Aviation English Asia

In this article I’m going to give some proven advice on language learning, and I’ll even give you my Top Five Tips for Developing Good English Learning Habits, so you can be successful in an airline career.

If you are reading this article, chances are that you are preparing to either take or re-take an ICAO English test.  If you are not taking this test (it’s for pilots and air traffic controllers) then you will still find this advice very useful, no matter what your intended career.  If you follow my advice, you can save a lot of time and money in learning English.

Let me start this article by telling you a few things about me, that maybe you don’t know.  The first time I learned a foreign language was in high school, back in the UK – I was supposed to learn French.  I was actually quite good at French because I was good at mimicking (copying) sounds.   My teacher didn’t see it that way though, in fact my teacher never saw or heard me speak French at all.  There were too many other students (about 30 in a class) and they were all of mixed levels.  The teacher never gave us any opportunity to practice speaking in French to each other, we just watched her write on the board and occasionally copied her in choral repetition (repeating words as a group).  I only learned French for two years, and I was glad to drop the subject.  I didn’t particularly hate learning French, but I just didn’t feel motivated to learn it, or didn’t feel any great need to learn it.

I didn’t learn another foreign language again for a long time.  I chose to learn Mandarin in evening classes at my university.   I learned Mandarin for 2 hours per week, for 8 months.  There were about 15 people in the class and they all became great friends.  Naturally a few people dropped out, because they were busy with their careers but most of us managed to stick together as a group and help each other.  Of course, this was in London so there wasn’t much opportunity to practice speaking in Mandarin day to day.

In each class we were told to memorise a list of words both in pin yin (romanised) and as hanzi (Chinese characters).  Within weeks we were told to not use the romanised characters, just remember the Chinese characters.  In each lesson we would often have to memorise 20 or more hanzi and be able to read and pronounce them correctly.  Very few of us managed to do this and we forgot a lot of them, probably because they were words that we would never use (eg. planned socialist economy).  It was painful having to look up the Chinese characters in a dictionary so I could pronounce them correctly.

When I moved to Hong Kong I started learning Cantonese instead. By this time I had a lot of experience in language teaching so I could recognise the techniques that the teacher was using. My Cantonese teacher spoke to me in 100% Cantonese (or not at all) so I used the target language all of the time. I learned vocabulary from pictures not a dictionary – only later did I learn to write the word in chinese characters or pin yum. I studied Cantonese with my teacher 6 hours a day, five days a week, for 6 weeks – then I went out and practised some more.

Which language do you think that I can speak better?

My Cantonese is much better than my Mandarin, and my French is now non-existent. So what is the difference that made the difference?

The main difference is not the length of time studying, or the environment I studied in, but the teaching method. In language teaching there are two distinct families:
1. Grammar Translation
2. Communicative Method

In school, most people learn through Grammar Translation. It does have some advantages, but it’s a very slow method. Schools often use this style of teaching when they are teaching a “foreign” language or when there are a lot of students in a very large class. Grammar Translation teaches you to remember many different grammar rules, and learn vocabulary by memorisation. In these classes the success of the method is judged by how you perform in the exam. This often means that learners can read and write – but not speak and hear very well. Just like my French class, it’s not fun.

In Communicative Method the emphasis is on meaning rather than the more traditional approach that emphasizes structural/grammatical competence. The learner gets to practice using the language in a way that is meaningful to them. So how can knowing this help you pass the ICAO English test?

The most important reason is that it can help you realise that not everything your high school teacher told you was correct. There are better ways of learning, and a good teacher will help you discover them. Your teacher in high school might have told you to memorise vocabulary lists, read newspapers and complete gap-fill exercises but that isn’t exactly best teaching practice in the 21st century. I don’t mean that your previous teachers were necessarily bad teachers, but they might have been forced to use a teaching method that was the only method they had particularly big classes.

So what I’m trying to say, is that I understand what it is like to learn a foreign language, and that my teachers weren’t always right either. If you have ever found it difficult to make progress in English, or achieve that breakthrough I have some great advice for you.

So here are my Top Five Tips for Developing Good English Learning Habits

1. Use the target language – that means just use English, not your native language. Avoid translation unless you really need help. Some words might not have an equivalent “concept” in your native language so in this situation translation would be pointless. When you use the target language you are training your brain to make connections that will help you remember words more easily.
2. COW – Concept, Oral Form, Written Form – when you learn new vocabulary try to understand the meaning (the way the word is being used in a real situation) before learning the pronunciation or the written form. If you know what a word means, then the pronunciation will be much easier. The last thing you should be concerned about is the written form. Don’t worry about spelling until you have mastered the pronunciation of the oral form of the word.
3. Don’t focus on grammar too much – a good communicative teacher will present grammar structures in context so you can learn them naturally. The most important thing is that you can communicate. You can work on your accuracy later.
4. Have clear goals – know what your current level is and how long it will take you to reach your target level of English proficiency. This will help you be realistic about what you can achieve – a complete ICAO level in 3 weeks isn’t going to be possible so don’t rush through your English course. Take regular English Assessment Tests to find out if you are on track to reach your goal.
5. Make learning English a regular habit. Don’t just practice English with your teacher, make sure you practice English with other students, and at every opportunity you can. If practicing English is a regular part of your life your brain it will become easier and more enjoyable.

I’d also like to share with you one more great piece of advice about developing a good attitude towards learning. This one is really important.

You should practice English because you enjoy communicating with other English speakers, not just because you need it for your job. If you only learn English so you can pass the ICAO English test, or pass an airline’s interview procedure you are giving yourself a lot of additional pressure. Be nice to yourself, and enjoy learning English. Improving your English is an investment that will always pay off, no matter what your career.

For more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.asia
If you haven’t already, please sign up to our newsletter using the course enquiry form on the right hand side. You can then receive updates and course information from Aviation English Asia as soon as they are available.

Pass the CX ICAO English test with Aviation English Asia.

If you are based in Hong Kong and want to become a pilot then you will surely be aware that one of the best (and least expensive) ways of getting on to the flight deck is through an airline’s cadet pilot programme. This has since be opened to people of other nationalities so local Hong Kong people must now compete with native English speakers. One area of difficulty is passing the ICAO English test.

Aviation English Asia have a complete course to help you pass the CX ICAO English test. Our ICAO English for CPP course will give you the skills you need to pass Cathay’s ICAO English test. We have a thorough understanding of both learner needs and what the CX assessors and Flight Ops recruitment departments want so you can be sure that our course is the best possible preparation for the ICAO English test.

Learning English for aviation is a long term goal – you can’t take a magic pill to learn English overnight. Language centres in Hong Kong often don’t teach you the study skills and habits that you need to learn effectively. Even the better schools offer completely inappropriate courses for candidates who want to join the cadet pilot programme. Aviation English Asia offers a better solution.

Here are ten reasons why:

  • Aviation English Asia are experienced in assessing English for the purposes of the CX ICAO test.
  • We understand what the assessors and recruiters want. 
  • Aviation English Asia courses are flexible and fit into your timetable easily.
  • We won’t sell you a long course that you don’t need (and don’t have time to attend).
  • Aviation English Asia only employ CELTA / DELTA / Trinity Cert TESOL qualified native English teachers (all our teachers have between 5 and 15 years of teaching experience and have externally assessed teaching qualifications – they don’t have ‘online’ TEFL certificates).
  • We accurately place you at the right starting level.
  • We understand what is required of cadet pilots.
  • We give you constant feedback and assessment to make sure that you are always on track.
  • We want you to succeed – our students are our best advertisement and our goal is to produce competent English speakers for the airline industry.
  • Aviation English Asia have a 100% success rate.

100% of our students have passed the CX ICAO English test.

Find out your ICAO Aviation English level now.

Although Aviation English Asia has an excellent track record in preparing candidates for the CX ICAO test we won’t give you the answers to memorise. We don’t offer that kind of preparation. Instead we will help you develop the English language skills you need to pass the test, without having to cram for the answers at the last minute.  Fluency in English can’t be faked and the assessor will know if you are memorising answers.  Remember that our goal is to produce competent English speakers that can communicate clearly and with grammatical accuracy.

What happens in the ICAO English test?
The assessor will be looking at your language skill in 6 separate areas. 
These are Structure, Pronunciation, Vocabulary, Comprehension, Fluency and Interaction.
English courses available in mainstream language centres in Hong Kong rarely provide sufficient practice in these core areas as they are designed for a more regular function.  This is typically academic study eg IELTS or TOEFL, or alternatively for general or business English eg BULATS.  Mainstream English schools usually lack the expertise to train learners to meet the requirements of the ICAO Aviation English test and can only provide a very general English course.  As the environment is very mixed the learner in such an environment will often pick up “Chinglish”  errors as a result.  Furthermore the timetable and length of the course make it very difficult for CPP candidates to learn English well.

To pass the CX ICAO test you will need to score level 5 in each of these areas, though candidates that were told to reach ICAO level 4 have recently been allowed to pass with level 4 scores.

It seems that one of the difficulties is that people are not aware of their English ability in terms of an ICAO rating before they take the CX test.  If your English is generally pretty good we recommend taking our Aviation English assessment test first so that you can have a realistic idea of how good your English really is.  This is very inexpensive at $968 HKD for both an 60 minute online, and an in-person assessment.

If you take the CX ICAO test and do not achieve the required standard in any of the 6 categories the assessor will most likely recommend between 100 and 300 hours of English training.  That can be expensive, if you choose the wrong school / tutor.  There is also the danger that the English training might not be appropriate for CPP candidates needs.

Find out your ICAO English level before you attend an interview.

There IS a better alternative to mainstream schools and tutors (though I am sure some of them are also very good in their area). There is also more than one ICAO English test in the world, just as there are many types of English examination. Before you take the ICAO English test I recommend taking an independent assessment. This will give you confidence when you sit the CX ICAO test and a more detailed understanding of your language abilities and weaknesses.

For more information about ICAO Aviation English for the CX CPP please visit:
http://www.aviationenglish.com/english-for-pilots-and-atcos/icao-level-5-for-cadets.html

and also join in the discussion about the CX ICAO test on our Facebook fan page.