Author Archive for: Michael Egerton

Advice about improving your Aviation English and passing an ICAO English test from Aviation English Asia.

Article written by Michael Egerton

Using English grammatical structures accurately is an important skill needed by pilots and controllers in their ICAO English test but also for other airline employees in their everyday duties, particularly if you need to say something in a subtle way or obscure information.  When learning English you should also learn the function of a structure rather than just memorising the structure itself.  When you know what a structure is for, and why it is used your Aviation English will improve rapidly.

In this article we are going to look at passive and active voice, and why they are used in English.  We will then look at an example of how they can be used in an aviation context, followed by some Aviation English exercises.

Aviation English Exercise

Reading comprehension

Six passengers on-board a flight from Turkey to Russia on 24th September were made to stand because there were not enough seats.  The adult travellers stood for the entire five-hour flight, except for when the plane hit turbulence, during which time the passengers were forced to sit in the aisle without seatbelts.

The passengers were subjected to ‘standing room only’ after the Tatarstan Airlines flight from Antalya to Ekaterinburg was replaced by another aircraft with fewer seats just before take-off. The standing passengers were without oxygen masks or life vests on the overcrowded jet.

One passenger told the UK’s Daily Mail newspaper “The adults had no choice but to fly standing for five hours.  When the plane flew through turbulence, they went from standing to sitting in the aisle where they had no safety belts.”

The cabin crew told passengers to put children on their lap – but the children were too big.  The angry passengers have each demanded $4,900 in compensation but were only offered $212 by the tour company which had booked many passengers on the flight.

A spokesperson from the tour company defended the airline, saying the passengers could have waited for a later flight.  “People had a choice to fly on that plane standing up, or wait seven hours for another plane,” said Evgenia Fedorova “All the tourists decided to fly back despite uncomfortable conditions.”

The incident has not been denied by the airline and aviation regulators are said to be probing the incident.

Comprehension questions

Before answering the questions, read the article again and identify which sentences use passive voice and which sentences use active voice.

  • Why was passive/active voice used?
  • Why do you think the airline made the decision to make passengers stand?
  • Was it a good decision?
  • What were the dangers of having passengers standing during a flight?
  • Would you have liked to have been one of the cabin crew working on that flight?
  • If you were a member of the airline how would you explain to a passenger that they had to stand?

Structure

The structure of passive voice is:

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle

Passive voice is used for the following purposes:

  1. To emphasise an object, eg six passengers were made to stand
  2. To de-emphasise the subject/agent, eg the airline told passengers to sit in the aisle (not good for the airline)
  3. If you don’t know who is responsible for an action

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice:

  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is omitted)

Aviation English Exercise

How do you say the following sentences in passive voice?

  1. Cabin crew made passengers stand because there were not enough seats.
  2. Cabin crew forced passengers to sit in the aisle without seatbelts.
  3. Another aircraft with fewer seats replaced the Tatarstan Airlines flight from Antalya to Ekaterinburg.
  4. One passenger told the UK’s Daily Mail newspaper …
  5. The cabin crew told passengers to put children on their lap.
  6. The passengers have each demanded $4900 in compensation.
  7. The airline has not denied the incident.
  8. Aviation regulators are probing the incident.

What to do next

For feedback and more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com. We can help you improve your English whether you are an experienced pilot, a cadet entry pilot, a controller, aerospace engineer or flight attendant, with custom courses designed specifically for your needs. If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for instant access to free demonstration units of the ICAO Aviation English Online course, special offers and details of courses in your area.

Of course, feel free to leave a comment or even a suggestion for a future article. We value all of your feedback.

Advice about improving your English and passing an ICAO English test from Aviation English Asia.

Article written/adapted by Michael Egerton

As a pilot or controller, you are no doubt expecting a number of routine exchanges as part of your ICAO English test, but have you considered how you would respond if an unusual situation occurs?  They don’t get more unusual than this incident which occurred in August 2010.  Read the article and then answer the questions.

Crocodile causes panic among passengers and crew

It has been reported that a small airplane crashed in the Democratic Republic of Congo on 24th August 2010, killing all but one of the passengers.  The cause of the accident was an escaped crocodile which created panic among the passengers and crew.

The propeller driven plane was approaching its destination when a crocodile hidden in the smuggler’s hand luggage escaped and caused distress. Passengers stampeded to one side of the tiny plane, causing it to be thrown off-balance.

The original cause of the crash was originally thought to be a lack of fuel but the anonymous sole survivor has revealed their story to the magazine Jeune Afrique.  The crocodile also survived the crash, but was later killed with a machete by authorities.

The reptile was being smuggled by a passenger who had plans to sell it illegally. The sole survivor told authorities that the crocodile escaped as the plane was on its final approach. “The terrified flight attendant hurried towards the cockpit, followed by the passengers.”

The pilots, 62-year-old Belgian Danny Philemotte, who was also owner of the tiny airline, Filair. Philemotte and his first officer, 39-year-old Briton Chris Wilson, were unable to maintain control of the Czech-made L-410 Turbolet once it became unbalanced.  The twin-engine plane crashed into a house just short of the regional airport at Bandundu killing the pilots and 18 passengers on board. The flight had originated in the capital city of Kinshasa.

Experts say that such a crash would be rare. “It’s possible. It’s remote,” John Cox, a former airline captain and now airplane safety consultant, said to ABC News. “You could run the centre of gravity forward where it wouldn’t be controllable. Twenty people at 200 pounds each, it’s possible.”

Comprehension questions

  • When did the incident occur?
  • Where did the incident happen?
  • During which stage of flight did the crocodile escape?
  • How did passengers and crew react?
  • Do you believe that passengers running from one side of the aircraft to another could cause the plane to crash?

Although this kind of incident appears far-fetched- incidents with animals frequently create difficulties for pilots.  To perform well in an ICAO English test (and for aviation safety) you are going to need to be able to describe this kind of situation clearly in plain English.  With professional training from Aviation English Asia you will be able to understand a wide range of unexpected situations that can occur in flight, organise your thoughts and report them clearly and without hesitation. You will also be able to report the routine stuff AND reinforce your aviation knowledge.

Vocabulary

Find synonyms (words that mean the same) for the following words in the article above.

  • member of cabin-crew
  • cleaver
  • fuel-depletion
  • nameless
  • loose
  • began
  • carry-on bags

What to do next

For feedback and more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com. We can help you improve your English whether you are an experienced pilot, a cadet entry pilot, a controller, aerospace engineer or flight attendant, with custom courses designed specifically for your needs. If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for instant access to free demonstration units of the ICAO Aviation English Online course, special offers and details of courses in your area.

Of course, feel free to leave a comment or even a suggestion for a future article. We value all of your feedback.

Advice about improving your English and passing an ICAO English test from Aviation English Asia.

Article written/adapted by Michael Egerton

We’ve had a few requests for advice on how to develop listening skills for ICAO tests recently. One of the easiest ways to build your comprehension skills for an ICAO English test is to read a lot and become familiar with the subject matter.  Of course, you still need to know how to recognise the oral form of new vocabulary. In this article you can practice listening comprehension by playing the audio file below.  But first of all, can you explain what happened in this picture (from a different event)?

Damaged landing gear

Describe this picture

Practice listening for an ICAO test

File unavailable due to excessive downloads

Reading comprehension

Now read through the article and try to answer the comprehension questions. You can answer the questions by adding a comment to the article and we will give you some feedback.

The article:

A JetBlue Airways airliner that blew out its main landing gear tyres after making a hard landing at Sacramento International Airport on Aug. 26 had its parking brake on, according to the National Transportation Safety Board in a preliminary finding.

The airplane’s Flight Data Recorder indicated that the parking brake became engaged during the landing and remained engaged throughout the landing. The NTSB said neither pilot recalled any abnormal indications or warnings associated with the braking system prior to landing.

The first officer was flying the plane during the landing and the captain took over when the problem occurred. The airplane began a rapid deceleration and the first officer told the captain it felt like a main landing gear tyre blew out. Around the same time, air traffic control tower personnel reported observing sparks and smoke around the main landing gear.

Eighty six passengers and five crew members were evacuated. According to the report seven passengers received minor injuries. Neither of the two pilots nor the three flight attendants were hurt.

Besides blowing out the main landing gear tyres, a minor tyre-related fire erupted.

A Federal Aviation Administration inspection revealed that damage was limited to four deflated main landing gear tyres and the wheel rims, which were ground down. Damage to the tyres showed evidence of being locked on touchdown.

Damage to the runway was limited to “minor grazing” of its surface.

Comprehension questions

▪ Which airline was involved in the incident?
▪ Where did it happen?
▪ What do the NTSB think caused the incident?
▪ How did the pilots discover there was a problem?
▪ How did the ATCs become aware of the problem?
▪ What other damage was caused and how did it happen?

When you look back at the picture do you have more vocabulary to describe the picture now?

What to do next

For feedback and more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com. We can help you improve your English whether you are an experienced pilot, a cadet entry pilot, a controller, aerospace engineer or flight attendant, with custom courses designed specifically for your needs. If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for instant access to free demonstration units of the ICAO Aviation English Online course, special offers and details of courses in your area.

Of course, feel free to leave a comment or even a suggestion for a future article. We value all of your feedback.

Word of the Week from Aviation English Asia.

Controlled Airspace (noun)

Definition:   An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided in accordance with the airspace classification.

For more Aviation English  learning advice please visit http://aviationenglish.com or visit our Facebook Page

Word of the Week from Aviation English Asia.

Missed Approach Point – MAPt (noun)

Definition:  The point in an instrument approach procedure at or before which the prescribed missed approach procedure must be initiated in order to ensure that the minimum obstacle clearance is not infringed.

For more Aviation English  learning advice please visit http://aviationenglish.com or visit our Facebook Page

Advice about improving your English and passing an ICAO English test from Aviation English Asia.

Article written/adapted by Michael Egerton

The ability to form and ask questions is very important in Aviation English.  In this article you can watch a video of an interview with a Boeing 747 test pilot talking about his life and career.  He talks about his motivation for becoming a pilot and also his career path.  Watch the video and then answer the comprehension questions below.

Comprehension questions

  1. Is it true that Mark wanted to be a paperboy when he was a boy?
  2. Where did he learn to fly?
  3. Why does he spend as much time in the simulator as he does in the cockpit?
  4. According to Mark, what makes a good test pilot?
  5. In what ways is a test pilot different from a normal pilot?
  6. Name some differences between the old 747-400 and new model 747
  7. Where did Mark fly to recently?
  8. Who does he credit for being able to release the parking brake?

What questions would you like to ask a Boeing 747 test pilot? Write your answers as a comment below and we will give you some feedback on your structure.

What to do next

For feedback and more information about Aviation English Asia’s courses please visit http://aviationenglish.com. We can help you improve your English whether you are an experienced pilot, a cadet entry pilot, a controller, aerospace engineer or flight attendant, with custom courses designed specifically for your needs. If you haven’t already please join the Aviation English mailing list for instant access to free demonstration units of the ICAO Aviation English Online course, special offers and details of courses in your area.

Of course, feel free to leave a comment or even a suggestion for a future article. We value all of your feedback.

Word of the Week from Aviation English Asia.

Special VFR Flight (noun)

Definition:  A flight made at any time in a control zone which is Class A airspace or is in any other control zone in IMC or at night, in respect of which the appropriate air traffic control unit has given permission for the flight to be made in accordance with special instructions given by that unit, instead of in accordance with the Instrument Flight Rules and in the course of which flight the aircraft complies with any instructions given by that unit and remains clear of cloud and in sight of the surface.

For more Aviation English  learning advice please visit http://aviationenglish.com or visit our Facebook Page

Word of the Week from Aviation English Asia.

Visual Meteorological Conditions – VMC (noun)

Definition:  Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, horizontal and vertical distance from cloud, equal to or better than specified minima.

For more Aviation English  learning advice please visit http://aviationenglish.com or visit our Facebook Page

Word of the Week from Aviation English Asia.

RVR – Runway Visual Range (noun)

Definition:  The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can expect to see the runway surface markings, or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centre line.

For more Aviation English  learning advice please visit http://aviationenglish.com or visit our Facebook Page

Word of the Week from Aviation English Asia.

Blind Transmission (noun)

Definition: A transmission from one station to another station in circumstances where two-way communication cannot be established but where it is believed that the called station is able to receive the transmission.

For more Aviation English  learning advice please visit http://aviationenglish.com or visit our Facebook Page